Slope stabilization is the process of giving stability to an unstable slope, prone to failure due to stress generation. These stresses are generated due to several natural and man-made reasons like the earthquake, excavation, deforestation, etc.
Slope reinforcement by constructing structural elements through the failure plane can help achieve stabilization. Structural elements could comprise conventional piles/drilled shafts, jet grout/soil mix columns, or reinforced rigid inclusions. In granular soils, soil improvement can increase slope stability.
Slope Stability is attained by taking local and global stability into account and local stability by wire meshes, shot creating, etc. Whereas ground anchors, soil nails, etc. takes care of global stability.
Rockfall is the falling of a newly detached mass of rock from a cliff or down a steep slope. Rocks in a rockfall can be of any dimension. These rockfalls are extremely dangerous to human life and property. The prevention of rockfall impact upon people is known as rockfall mitigation.
Rockfall mitigation is performed by providing rockfall barriers with hinged or fixed connection. These barriers have high tensile wire mesh and brake system which dissipates energy included by the rock.
The foundations of the building transfer the weight of the building to the ground. Since the weight of the building rests on the soil (or rock), engineers have to study the properties of the soil carefully to ensure that it can carry the loads imposed by the building. To study the properties of the soil for designing foundations, engineers demand soil investigation.
The soil investigation team will then prepare a report that lists the engineering properties of the soil at regular intervals, say every two meters. Based on this report, engineers designing the structure can decide the depth of soil to provide foundations, the type of foundations they should provide, and the size of the foundations.
Ground improvement is a technique that improves the engineering properties of soil. It is used where replacement of the whole soil is not reasonable and change of location is not feasible.
Ground improvement uses:
- Increase shear strength of soil
- Decrease permeability of soil
- Prevent liquefaction
- Increase density
- Accelerate consolidation
- Control deformation